American warships will pass through the Suez Canal on their way to waters off Libya on Wednesday as Western nations exert pressure on its leader Muammar Gaddafi to halt a bloody crackdown and step down.
The United States said Libya could sink into civil war unless Gaddafi ends his four-decade rule amid fears that the uprising, the bloodiest against long-serving rulers in the Middle East, could cause a humanitarian crisis.
Gaddafi is defiant and his son, Saif al-Islam, has warned the West against launching military action. He said the veteran ruler would not relinquish power or be driven into exile.
Across Libya, tribal leaders, officials, military officers and army units have defected to the rebel cause and say they are becoming more organised. Tripoli is a stronghold for Gaddafi in this oil-producing north African state.
“We are going to keep the pressure on Gaddafi until he steps down and allows the people of Libya to express themselves freely and determine their own future,” Susan Rice, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, told ABC’s “Good Morning America”.
The destroyer USS Barry moved through the Suez Canal on Monday and into the Mediterranean. Two amphibious assault ships, the USS Kearsarge, which can carry 2,000 Marines, and the USS Ponce, were in the Red Sea and were expected to go through the canal early on Wednesday.
The repositioning of U.S. ships and aircraft closer to Libya is widely seen as a symbolic show of force since neither the United States nor its NATO allies have shown any appetite for direct military intervention in the turmoil that has seen Gaddafi lose control of large swaths of his country.
“We are looking at a lot of options and contingencies. No decisions have been made on any other actions,” Defense Secretary Robert Gates said, noting the United Nations had not authorised the use of force in Libya.
Italy said it was sending a humanitarian mission to Tunisia to provide food and medical aid to as many as 10,000 people who had fled violence in Libya on its eastern border.
Tunisian border guards fired into the air on Tuesday to try to control a crowd of people clamouring to cross the frontier.
About 70,000 people have passed through the Ras Jdir border post in the past two weeks, and many more of the hundreds of thousands of foreign workers in Libya are expected to follow.
U.S. RULES NOTHING OUT
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said: “Libya could become a peaceful democracy or it could face protracted civil war.”
The U.S. Senate, in a unanimous vote, approved a resolution “strongly condemning the gross and systematic violation of human rights in Libya, including violent attacks on protesters demanding democratic reforms.”
The White House said the ships were being redeployed in preparation for possible humanitarian efforts but stressed it “was not taking any options off the table”. Gates said: “Our job is to give the president the broadest possible decision space.”
French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe sounded a note of caution, saying military intervention would not happen without a clear United Nations mandate.
British Prime Minister David Cameron, who said Britain would work with allies on preparations for a no-fly zone in Libya, said it was unacceptable that “Colonel Gaddafi can be murdering his own people using airplanes and helicopter gunships”.
General James Mattis, commander of U.S. Central Command, told a Senate hearing that imposing a no-fly zone would be a “challenging” operation. “You would have to remove air defence capability in order to establish a no-fly zone, so no illusions here,” he said. “It would be a military operation.”
Analysts said Western leaders were in no mood to rush into conflict after drawn-out involvements in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Gaddafi, a survivor of past coup attempts, has told television networks: “All my people love me,” dismissing the significance of a rebellion that has ended his control over much of oil-rich eastern Libya.
REBELS SAY STRENGTH GROWING
Rebel fighters said the balance of the conflict was swinging their way. “Our strength is growing and we are getting more weapons. We are attacking checkpoints,” said Yousef Shagan, a spokesman in Zawiyah, 50 km (30 miles) from Tripoli.
A rebel army officer in the eastern city of Ajdabiyah said rebel units were becoming more organised.
“All the military councils of Free Libya are meeting to form a unified military council to plan an attack on Gaddafi security units, militias and mercenaries,” Captain Faris Zwei said. He said there were more than 10,000 volunteers in the city, plus defecting soldiers.
Despite the widespread collapse of Gaddafi’s rule, his forces were fighting back in some regions. A reporter on the Tunisian border saw Libyan troops reassert control at a crossing abandoned on Monday, and residents of Nalut, about 60 km (35 miles) from the border, said they feared pro-Gaddafi forces were planning to recapture the town.
Mohamed, a resident of rebel-held Misrata, told Reuters by phone: “Symbols of Gaddafi’s regime have been swept away from the city. Only a (pro-Gaddafi) battalion remains at the city’s air base but they appear to be willing to negotiate safe exit out of the air base. We are not sure if this is genuine or just a trick to attack the city again.”
Many on the streets of Tripoli on Tuesday expressed loyalty, but a man who described himself as a military pilot said: “One hundred percent of Libyans don’t like him.”
The U.N. General Assembly on Tuesday unanimously suspended Libya’s membership of the U.N. Human Rights Council. A U.N. Security Council resolution on Saturday called for a freeze on Gaddafi’s assets and a travel ban and refers his crackdown to the International Criminal Court.
The United States has frozen $30 billion in Libyan assets.
Libya’s National Oil Corp said output had halved due to the departure of foreign workers. Brent crude prices surged above $116 a barrel on Tuesday as supply disruptions and the potential for more unrest in the Middle East and North Africa kept investors edgy.